PU HLUR HMUNG (1895-1979) SAN THU

Ngantu: A fapa Albert Sanglyen, M. Sc. (New Zealand)
Retd Chief Geologist, Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise, Burma

Pu Hlur Hmung
Pu Hlur Hmung khan ai Kawl pon in ngahnak
Pu Albert Sanglyen

(2012 kum Zanniatram Mekazin song ai ii)

Part (1)

Hlur Hmung heh Lumbang khua ah kum 1895 Dawnghla, hlaraan hlaan deuh suak ii le amah kum heh Zanniat hlaan daan kawi in siar sawn ii. Ciamanin Gregorian kum siar daan hnak in kum khat dawn uak ii. Amah lai ngan hnak ah 8 October, 1895 suak in ngan ii.

Hlur Hmung heh Mirang San Lumbang Mi-uk hmasa ber Lian Awng (1800-1894) ai fapa upaber Naih Vum (1863-1908) le a nupui hnuata Zun Bawi song suak upa ber ii. A nau Lal Bik heh Lumbang Laitlawng tlawng uk pui awng ii.

Nautaber Ngun Tial pasal tu pumsu Lian Sen ii. Hlur Hmung cawi tu Zun Bawi tu April 19, 1941 ah a san bo ii. Naih Vum nu hmasa Cawi Nuam in nupang faa pathum ian cawi hnua uur hnawm te fangin Zun Bawi thawn nupa leh ii. Cawi Nuam fenu Hlawn Sia in Sung Voom cawi ii.

Kum 1904 kum fangin Mirang Acuzah in Balai ah Kawl tlawng athar hong hmasaber ii. Ciami tlawng hong fangin Naih Vum in afapaa Hlur Hmung le Thang Cin te heh tlawng dah ii. Hlur Hmung tu Kum 1912 fangin phun 7 ong in tlawng kai zom nuam napui khaw, Lairam ah tlawng kai hmun um lo in Mawlaik hlah le Sagaing ah feh kuul fangin acawmtu nai lo manin tlawng kaai awl kuul in lovai in um lawk ii. Thang Cin tu Kum 1906 kum song Lumbang ah American Baptist Mission (ABM) in Kawl tlawng thar hong rih lawk fangin tlawng saya pa bawm tu ii le Baptist luut hmasaber tu ii. Ciapah Pastor ordination ngah tian hmuifu dong ii. Kum 1957 kum ah Zanniat Golden Jubilee ti in tlak ngai in cuan tlang awng hnua Kum 2006 fang tu Falam Christian Centenary ti in cang tiar sah ii sing.

Kum 1800 dungso ah Phalam (Falam tihnak heh tunnia Taisun relhnak ii) in Zanniat mi rawhfot tio fangin Zanniat mi tuar ben lo in siatsuah awng ii (Carey and Tuck, 1896). Ciaman in, Kum 1812–1818 lak ah Phalam te in asawm ben hnak Laimi phun dang te thawn kom in kin sim fangin Zanniat mi hmuah kin ram in cimpil kin hnawt sio manin Kawl ah, Pawi ram le Tedim ram lam cang ah tlan rih kuul awng ii sing. Kum hlai-tla dung kin hnawt hnua fangin cer leh tuh ngen ii sing. Cia fangin, Phalam te in kum zangza Phalam Ceng in um tuh thin ning khim le khaw cer leh thai ti kin heen tial fang in Kum 1830 dungso pan in Zanniat mi kinma ram cia ah Ceer thil leh ii sing. Cer leh fangin loram hmuah kin long, Ceng tuar in kin cawh hnak cawh kuan hmuah liam, lo te vai sah, Kawl ci phurh, Lukhawng pe hlai ah rong Siah, sum Siah aphun phun pe awng ii sing. Lumbang Mi-uk ram song hmuah tu 1889 kum Mirang in kin sim hnua tian Mirang Siah Ngunkhuai thawn Siah 2 liam awng ii.

Phalam (Fahlam) in loram tian kin long awng manin Zanniat Cer Leh fangin lo fing hmuah sum thawn tlan leh kuul ii. Kum 1904 fuur song ai pan in Mi-uk Naih Vum heh Phalam Mi-uk Con Bik le a fapaa Van Hmung te hnenah Phalam Ceng luat tuh hnak thu eel ii. Kum 1906 kum ah Lumbang uk song hmuah Phalam Lukhawng luat ben thil fangin hmaitong farah te in apafaa naihsun khiah Phalam ah Ceng tuar tuh hlat kuul hnak kin luat ii. Ii-napui khaw, Phalam Ceng le Siah phurh luat tuh hnak rohsia eel zom fangin, Van Hmung in Naih Vum thu eel thiam hnak heh Balai Zipeng zung Cakapian San Thein hnen ah ruhphuum pe ii si ti in hluk ii. Naih Vum in eel fangin Van Hmung le ana-ruaih India minung pakhat heh Phalam in keng cia hnak zu thawl nih thawn Naih Vum inn ah sim ii. Ciami zu thawl khat veve ding ben sawng pah Naih Vum karuh song buan diamdo in 27 February 1908 nia asan tat vut ii tihnak ii. Ciafangin Hlur Hmung heh kum 12 ii. Cia manin Mirang Acuzah in Naih Vum sang Khuang Bik heh Kum 1908-1914 song Lumbang Mi-uk per ruai lawk ii. Mi-uk Khuang Bik in eel zom ben lo manin Balai Vuanthok zungah kai ii. Ciafangin Vuanthok Captain L.E. Burne in Lumbang uk song hmuah tangka kuan tu selai cia ben pah tawp tu hang seh ti in December 12, 1910 nia thu tan ii. Ciamanin Lunghawh-Khawlai-Lumbang-Lati, Tapong khua 5 le Ngawn khua 14 hmuah kom Rupee 8000 zolo liam in ahnuataber kum 1915 ah cem ii (Hlur Hmung, 1935).Cia san Halkha le atansak um miphun hmuah Phalam in nau neh rawhfot hnak ciang ii. Ciaman in Kamhau te tu Phalam in sim tuh lau manin asim hlan sawn ah Phalam te hnen feh in rualrem hnak sumsaw pe in luut cia de ii ing ti thufiim heh cia san kin Zanniat Cihlah te in hmang hal lo manin thi luang tiar, ram in hnawt hnak tuar hnua Phalam Ceeng tuar kuul tian cang tiar awng zianzo ii.

Lumbang Mi-uk Per

Kum 1914 kum ah Hlur Hmung a kum, kum 19 khim fangin Mirang Acuzah in Khuang Bik heh Mi-uk awl ruai leh ii. Ciamanin Hlur Hmung heh 5 June 1914 nia pan in apu Lian Awng le apa Naih Vum te ukhnak Lunghawh-Khawlai-Lumbang-Lati, Tapong khua 5 le Ngawn khua 14 hmuah uktu Lumbang Mi-uk per ii.

Part (2)

January 3, 1946 nia panin Lairam uktu Acuzah naper hming designation te heh he bang in thleng awng ii:
Mirang San – 1.3.1946 nia thlenghnak
Mangki – Mangki
Zipeng – District Council
Vuanthok – Sub-district Council
Mi-uk – Mi-uk
Khuabawi – Khua Council
22.9.1946 nia Zanniatram song riil in 19.21948 tian pertu te
Mi-uk – Hlur Hmung.
Intermediate Council (Hrawng Tlangsuak) – Hlur Hmung, Khuah Bik le Khup Sin.

Ahmasa Laivum Raalpui, 1914-1918

Kum 1914 ah Bosnia pa in Austria ram uktu Archduke le anupui reek fangin Germany in bawm ii. Cia pah Europe ah Ahmasa Laivum Raalpui suak ii. Germany in neh diamdo fangin Great Britain, France le Russia raalkap te hmuah athuk pi 8 dung kua sau puipui peh zian in Maginot line ti hnak bang trench (Lai pon in threen-siat) co in raal ar fangin cing le pukpui in sung duun sawn ii. Raalkap tamsia thi teen in Germany tawngtu ram hmuah sung riaro ii. Kum 1917 fangin Great Britain in amah ukhnak Kawlram in raalkap luut nuam te luut thai volunteer ko ii. Halkha, Balai le Tedim ram in pasal nuncak, ruangpha 150 riil hnak te hmuah Balai Vuanthok Captain W.R. Head khawnghnak in 7 October 1917 nia Balai in feh tlang fangin Hlur Hmung (1935) khai:


“Nu le pa in raal nai, afaa pakhat ii ve ing ti in feh ve ngang ti ing… Kaima tsen khuapui te hmuah raal le khaw raal ve ngang, nung le khaw nung ve ngang ti ing… Kin feh tuh lai in tsen thi tuh le nung tuh aisu in khai kham ngam lo ai feh ii ing… Raal hmun ai kin um songah keimah khai I kut I ke le I ka abang pah in per ve ing… Ral bo leh man ai kum khat le hla ruk ai inn hleng leh ii ing…”

ti in a uk song tlangval te kawmin feh ve ii. Kalewa in timbaw to in Mandalay hleng hnua maileng to in Rangoon zu ii. Cia ta ah Kawl ram miphun dang te volunteer hmuah thawn khawm in Calcutta tian tangphawlawng to hnua Mumbai tian maileng in feh ii. Ciata pah tangphawlawng thawn Suez Tipeh lan in France ram Marseilles khua hleng ii. Marseilles in saklam France ram Buhe khua ah hleng pah 78 Burma Labour Corps ti in ko hnak raalkap thil le rong aih zongza thiar tu, raalkap mi ur le mithi thiar tu, raal tlan khuasong mi te bawmtu, kilkhawltu, lampui sel tu-vom tu, lai dawh kut-ke naper te hmuah per ii. Raltawng hmun ah ahmasa ber vanzuang ahmang khai hmu tlang ii. Cing le pukpui in sung duun thlurhthlo manin zaan khuathim lak khai var liang de ii ti ii. Maithal awh in raltawng pawl lo ii.

Kum 1918 February hla songah Hlur Hmung tu France ram ral tawng hmun in England ah hlat in London khua King George V thawn pon duun ii. Piah-taih (museum) le London khua song pumpalah ah asik tlak tampui hmuh liang song ah lung tel lo sui phal pui tia, arhli mai asau pi 6, vuiha asau pi 9 apawr pi 2 le thingham hial hnak akau dong 9 te hmu ii.


France hleng leh fangin USA in raalkap le raalthil tamsia thawn Great Britain bawm in tawng ve hang manin Germany sawn ral sung leh riaro ii. Ciapah 11 November 1918 nia ralrem leh hnak Treaty of Versailles Sachoke bawn ben fangin 78 Burma Labour Corps raalkap te khai January 6, 1919 nia Marseilles in suak in Kawlram tlung leh ii. A feh lam bang pah tlung leh fangin Egypt ram Port Said ah ato hnak tangphawlawng mai kang ii. Ti leuh awng lo Lai raalkap hmuah lupawng dolh sek in ti song ah thih-kih cai murhmo fangin hnihsa kuul tampui suak in o duun thil liang ii. Ciapah Sagaing khua ah March 2, 1919 nia hleng in com ruai fangin Hlur Hmung khai Havildar ngah zo ii le raalkap thuangtuah zuam duun fangin amah khawng hnak Laimi Company in neh sio ii. Sagaing ah um lak fangin Mirang raalbawi te in Laimi te heh nuncan pha in raalkap per thiam ti ling manin raalkap luut siang hmasaber ii. Raalkap lut tu um lenglo fangin Chin Hills Battalion ti in ko hmasaber ii. Lumbang faa Con Hniar, apa khat-ta Tai Kual le Than Sum te raalkap luut fangin Hlur Hmung tu amah Mi-uk per keel per zom tuh in suak manin raalkap luut lo tu hmuah thawn March 21, 1919 nia Lumbang ah him niuin hleng tlang leh ii. Ciate hmuah kum 1, hla 5 le ni 18 song raalkap lahkha le hnik pon ngah teen ii. Pension ngah maw ngah lo ling lo ii sing. Raalram in tlung leh tu atamsawn in thirkhang lai in Lai khua song ah thirkhang inn sa ben tu ahmasaber pawl ii hang. Bongbi com khai hmang hmasa pawl ii. He mi raal ram feh te hlan ah ramdang hleng ben tu Laimi minung dang um tuh heh um kuul lo ii.

Mirang Acuzah in Hlur Hmung heh Mi-uk naper phan niu per sah in mawh hnak nai lo manin kum 1920 fangin Mi-uk dang hrekkhat te thawn Ahmuhtan-gaung Tazeik-ya Min (A.T.M.) tazeik pe ii. Maithal phiir zuun khat laksawng khai ace niu in suum ii. France ram ah raaltawng fangin Havildar rank tian kai in per bawm hnak aang manin afehpui Laizo khua mi Phun Tai le Hualngo mi Dawna te kawm in kum 1922 kum ah Mirang Acuzah in Indian Distinguished Service Medal (I.D.S.M.) tazeik suum teen ii.

Lai Khua Song Thu Reel

Mirang San lai Mi-uk te heh a ukhnak ram songah amah te thiamthiam in per thai hnak administrative-judicial authorities ukchok-yee le tayasiyin-yee ahnaa pe liang ii. Hlai fual sia in ramsong thu reel sual lo hnua lam in Mirang Vuanthok, Zipeng te in siang pam ii. Mirang hleng hlan Lairam a cece uk duun siaso lai in, ram uktu hrekkhat in a uk hnak ram song um ramsa tian in amah naih ti in ham thil awng ii. Ciaman in khua song mi pakhat in ramsa kaap le khaw, asa tlo pui khiah cia ram uktu pa seel kuul hmun ram te um napui khaw Mirang in kham lo ii. Cia bang pah in concong le khuangcawi khai Lai daan yinkyeehmuh ti in hmu sawn manin Mirang in kham lo ii. Lo rong suak tlawm tete lak ah faate tlawng dah kuul fangin “Manah bia daan” ti in concong thaihdo awl hnak sawn ii.

Ram song uk fangin Hlur Hmung heh amah thu ian hmang lo in a paa Naih Vum san lai bangin Sumthang, Laizo, Zanniat, Nuhnua le Phunnim Hin te in amahte Hin song teen riil cia hnak upa te heh Namkap Upa (5) ti in a camra hmang ii. Kum 1945 hnua fangin Bairek, Vansia, Sazuat le Thangpak Hin te songin khai Namkap riil ruai in khua upa ah telh sio fangin Namkap Upa-Nauta um lo ii.

Mirang San ah Mi-uk te heh amahte uk song teen ah kum siar innkhi Ngunkhuai akhun (annual tax) lang tu in hmang ii. A khawl ngah hnak sum songin percentage khirh hnak tangka ping teen ii.

Hlur Hmung heh uk song hmuah innkhi in fang vawh khat teen phurh hnak kum siar Siah ai de ii. Uk song ah cawhkuan ruai kuul hnak um fangin tangka kuan ruai lo in vok pakhat le rong aih liam in khua seen lungkhen hlah le thu reel tu Namkap, cen thu nai tu le cawhkuan tu hmuah in ai pui de ii. Tangka kuan ruai hnak cawh kuan um le khaw Zu pum Zalai ti in khawl ii. Namkap te thu reel fangin zu hnawt beel khat ding hnak in hmang de ii.

Lumbang Namkap Upa 5 hmuah tu naaper sul in thu reel bawm man ti in Kum 1921 pan pah inn 26 teen in lovaai hlawh nih teen pe hnak ngah de ii. Hlur Hmung tu inn 36 te nihlawh ngah ii.

Mi-uk per song ah amah le Lumbang hua-tu khai suak de ii. Ciaman in Kum 1946 ah Sihzang thawn fai khat-lung khat phiar kawm hnak Laidaan saroh duun Sathin Thal tian in sawm cia kuul awng ii.

Part (3)

Innkua le Faate

Hlur Hmung nupui hmasa heh Nuhnua faa Mang Cung ii. Mang Cung in Kum 1921 kum ah nupang faa panih hnak cawi ben pah faa-tong in rocotu fapaa cawi sah lo ii. Ciamanin kum 1931 ah Mang Cung le Namkap te thawn reel tlang fangin nu dang nai tuh siang tlang ii. Mang Cung in Baptist ah luut fangin luut awng ve napui hlahkhaw kham lo ii. Cia tihin, Kum 1932 October hla songah Nuhnua faa Cong Nuam hoi fangin fapaa 4 le fenu 10 cawi kawm leh ii. Fa hmasaber fapaa le fenu 2 te tu kum 1942 hlan ah thi ii. Nu-hmasa thawn cawi hnak a fenu Shwe Aye tu US ah 1994 kum ah thi te ii. Kum 2012 fangin nu-hnuata a kum 95 kheng Cong Nuam le a faate 10 hmuah US ah um liangin fapaa pakhat tu Rangoon ah um ii.

Kum 1925 ah Lumbang Tlawng Hong

Kum 1904 fangin Balai ah Kawl tlawng hong hmasa ber napui khaw, Lai lai (Chin-sa) heh Kum 1925 fang ian in Lumbang le Balai peng khua dang khua 4 ah tlawng thar te hong in zirh pan ii. 1906 kum Naih Vum uk lakin American Baptist Mission (ABM) in Lumbang ah Kawl tlawng hong rih awng fang ai inn hmun ah lai ceek not in Lumbang uk song khua cang in khon hnak thil te hmangin tlawng inn le boarder inn te hmuah Hlur Hmung uk lak ah athar sa hnak ii. Cia tlawng hong fangin lai zir nuam tu naupang um lo hlai ah nu le pa in siang lo manin tlawngta ngah thil lo ii. Ciamanin khuasong ah thu nai ben lo tu te ai faate sawn khiah tlawng kai ruai bel ii ti khai um awng ii. Tlawng kai nuam lo pui pa khua hnawt in kai tu tlawngta pa khiah akhuapui te hmuah hlawm in cawm kuul awng de ii ti hnak ii. Hlur Hmung sangtu Lal Bik in tlawng uk sayagyi per hmasa ber pah Kum 1962 tian per awng ii.

Maithal le Ramsa Sakap

Mirang te in Laimi te heh lovai le sazuul pawl ti in kin hmu ii. Hlur Hmung San ah maithal thawn sa zuul in kap de ii. Hlur Hmung in Lai maithal zun 2, mawng tin aphiir zun 2, Winchester rifle 1, .404 Rifle zun khat le .38 Smith & Wesson Revolver zun khat nai ii. Saza tamber kap in ramsel 2, fung 2 thawn vom, ngal le sakhi-sathar te kap liang ii. February 9, 1941 nia Pamunchaung ziatlam Htaukkyant hiang ah vui cangpui pakhat kap pah sazul awl in maithal velnih ian awh ii hang. Hlur Hmung inn heh khuasong inn hiangta ber ii. Inn hiang seenham ah liangsia-khu kua lak ah thingkung le nangfu um ii. Nikhat tu asuang nai ruul nupa hmu tu um manin khua seen in zuul fangin zuul ve napui kap ngah lo pah ruul tu pai te ii. Cia hnua, Lumbang khua song ah zanlai vak hnak pawpui niah hmu manin August 8, 1946 nia khuaseen pawpui Saniah Hla ii. Hlur Hmung sabawh hmun ah pawpui kawi ziatzo fangin a hiang ai Namkap pa lau ze in hlawng manin pawpui tu hmun dang lam tlan pah aisu in khai kap ngah lo ii. Ramsa kap in asa seel tu um fangin LG dawng 1 le SG dawng 1 veve suum de ii. Vui kap nuam manin Kum 1938 ah vui tar pakhat kap tuh Licence siouh cia ii. Akap hnak vui cang pui heh Licence ah kap sianghnak tahhnak in dawn deuh manin Balai Vuanthok zung ah cawhkuan Rupees 20 liam kuul ii. Vui-ha tu December 11, 1941 nia ah Rupees 30 in tlan ii.

Con Cong, Khuangcawi

Khua hlan Zanniat Lai daan in inn-lum hmasa ber te in “Vok Dawng Hong” ti in “khua song ah ning khuapui inn lu-tu ve ii hang ing” ti ling ruai hnak zu ding-aih tuh rum rawn niu thawn amah suakpui songkhat le inn nong te ko keel ii. Cia pah, lo rong le sum vulh nai hnak te hmang siang le khaw ni tampui song Saro-zu ding in Con Cong thai ii. Con Cong heh aniam ber Vok Dawng Hong kuul ii. Cia hnua fangin anaih hnak lo rong le sel hlah le vok tam deuhdeuh ro in Cong fangin sang deuhdeuh kai zianzo ii. Rong nai-sel vulh zia te in Sel Con Cong laam fangin ni tampui songah sel tampui ro betbo in khua do ii. Vok zua heh bai deuh manin Vok Con heh mi tam deuh in cong ben thil hnak ii. Vok Con ah sel ro lo ii. Sel Con ah Sel tampui ro kuul ii. Sel Con hlah le Vok Con kai hngerhngo ben sio fang ian in a khum hnak “Khuangcawi” cawi thai ii. Con upa cong ben le khaw “Sawl-mai” ton thil ii. Sawl-mai tihnak heh rua fung niu par ah kho tial in sawm meng hnak me kha hmul ii. Rua fung ciah lupawng ah thiat fangin apar ai me kha hmul heh awi leklo in mer thil ii.

Hlur Hmung khai kum siar in lo fing nih vai tio ve hlai ah Siah tlut khai dong ii. Amah inn ah sel vul lo in khua dang lam ah vulh hlawh ruai in sel nai tio ii. Kum 1923 February 18 in 26 song Cong Lam in “Sel Con Cong” pan hnua February 3-6, 1933 song “Khuangcawi Laam” lam awng ii.

1936 kum ah Tial Men pa, “Tin Zam” in “Khuangcawi” ii. Tin Zam in Khuangcawi ben pah Lai khua song kin um daan thleng zual hang manin hlaanlai bangin rong nai, sum zua zia thil lo ii hang. Cia pah Con Cong saro ben tu um lo ii hang. August 3, 1946 nia Lumbang khuasen thu reel khawm fangin “Con Lam” hmuah kham ii.

Satuk

Kum siar fanglai hu in ruahsi hnua ah ruah ti lai hlen fangin Zanniat mi te lo song lai-faang pawi ii. Fang pawi ben fangin pasal te hmuah inn tlung kongin sa zuul de ii. Saa kap tu um fangin azaan ah sa aai zu ding in nun nuam tlang de ii. Cia pah sa kap betbo le khaw ai betbo in rualrem te thawn zu ding, vokro in um de ii. Cia heh “Satuk” ii. Mirang in Club ti hnak rualrem pasal pui hmuah khawm khat hnak ii. Saa kap awng lo khua song mi pakhat in Satuk nuam ve le khaw, Satuk hmun pakhat khat ah been in Satuk ai thai ve ii. Saa kap awng man ian in Satuk ai thil hnak ii lo ii. Hlur Hmung khai amah hming in “Hlur Hmung Tuk” nai napui hlah khaw, kompui tampui Tuk ah tel in pawl pui nai de ii.

Uur Sia Nai Te Khuapua Hnawt

Minung heh thi san sor le taksa phaar uur sia ngah sual fangin khua seen zai tiar thai ii sing. Cia bang uur hnak nai te heh kum 1933 dung pan pah khua pua ah hlaam sak in a uur hnak lawm lo hlan hmuah hnawt awng de ii. Miphaar te tu athi tian khua in hnawt ii.

England Kumpibawi te Silver Jubilee le Coronation Tazeik

George V heh 1910 kum fangin England ram uktu kumpibawi kai ii. Cia lai ah England in Kawlram khai British Empire ah telh in kin uk tu awng ii. 1935 kum ah George V in Silver Jubilee aang hnak aai fangin Hlur Hmung khai Jubilee Tazeik pe ii. 1936 kum ah King George V thi te fangin King George VI in naper son vut ii. 1938 kum song ah George VI in kumpibawi thar cang hnak aai fangin Hlur Hmung khai Coronation Tazeik suum ve ii. Coronation Tazeik heh Mandalay ah lang ruai in ruat thil ii. Zaimantifangin cia kum ah Maymyo aka Pyin-oo-lwin ah Lumbang le a uk song mi raalkap per tu pasal pha 16 hmuah leeng in zuk hnak songah Coronation Tazeik ben zo ii hang. Cia zuk song ah Subedar Tai Kual, Subedar Con Hniar le Havildar Tin Zam te unau-tlang hmuah junior rank ngah zo ii.

Part (4)


Ahnuata Laivum Raalpui, 1936–1945

Hemi raalpui heh Hmasa Laivum Raalpui sung tu Germany te thin khim lo in erh phetpho hnua Italy le Japan te sawm fangin ram 3 kom Axis Power ti in raal thok tlang ii. Japan raalkap te in Philippine ai America te hnawt ben, Indochina ai French te hnawt, Indonesia ai Dutch te hnawt ben sio fangin Mirang uk hnak Singapore khua khiah February 15, 1942 nia long ngah in pan pah Mirang te heh Malaysia ah sungsia in sung fangin Kawlram in India ah let in tlan kuul rih lawk ii. Mirang raalkap tamber le raal tawng hnak tank, cing le pukpui hmuah tu Tamu le Tedim motor lampui in tlan ii.
Kum 1943 October hla songah Balai Zipeng H.N.C. Stevenson khai raalbawi Lieutenant Colonel bo ben in raal tlan ii. Balai in Lumbang ah, ciata in Bualkhua ah, ciata in Tedim ah tlaan zianzo kongin Imphal hleng ii. A let hlan deuh ah Balai peng Mi-uk hmuah kom liang in Japan tawng tuh sawm napui khaw, Hlur Hmung ian in aw fangin amah ciah Zanniat ram Home Guard le Chin Levy te kom liang in uk tu Commander pe ii. Home Guard le Levy te in Japan raal neh tuh in ruat hnak lo napui khaw Japan te in Mirang hnawt bia bo heh fung ruai deuh thai tihnak sawn ii. Home Guard te hmuah amah te maithal hmang in tawng ruai rih hnua ian ah Balai Vankautlang ah vanzuang in maithal le ziandawng hmuah parachute thawn hlaak fangin zun khat puak 12 gouge maithal hmang in 1943 kum bo tian tawng tlang ii. Maithal thawn tawng tu Zanniat khua song mi hmuah khiah Home Guard ti in ko ai Levy te tu India let nuam lo tu Zanniat raalkap le kum upa reserve pawl ii. India let nuam lo tu Kawl raalkap hmuah heh Kalewa hlah le Tamu hleng fangin amahte hmang cia hnak rifle le ziandawng dawng 50 teen thawn khua tlung siang ii. Levy te hmuah Subedar Major Tai Kwel in khawng salawn ii le Mirang in pe hnak Mirang rifle le automatic maithal te hmang ii. Lam hiang ah Home Guard–Levy te relh in Japan te ambush bawh lep in sai de, lam hiang ah kut sep bung (hand grenade) toh in puak tiar fangin Japan raalkap tampui reek de hlai ah Japan te vak ngam de lo manin Stevenson ruat hnak bangin hnempui ngai ii. Zai tluk hnempui ii ti hnak tu Stevenson in amah ngan hnak laibu songah he bangin aan ii, Stevenson (1943 p.x)

It is not easy to assess the service they have done us by that lonely stand, but this we can say – that had the Chins let the Japanese pass through on their conquering way into Manipur and Assam, the difficulties that would have befallen India are beyond computation.


Home Guard le Levy te in rohpui peu ar ben tio manin Zanniat ram song ah harsa ngai in luut cekco thil lai ii. Japan te in Lumbang luut thil zual lo in vel tampui tawng ben tio fangin khua maitai tuh ti thusia kin pe ii. Ciamanin December 29, 1943 ah zu le sa thawn luut leh kuul ii. Velkhat tu Bangla tian luut ngah napui khaw, Levy te in zoi in kap fang in Vaar lam tlan kuul ii.

Atlan kong in Zari muallai in 2 inch mortar thawn Hlur Hmung inn sung in kap fangin rongsuang hmun thirkhang khuk nak sak lam hmuah van hmuh kua her in kha sah diam ii.

Japan raalkap in Mirang hnawt ben diamdo fangin Hlur Hmung khai Tonzang in India lam tlan ve ii. Ramri ai Phaisat khua hleng fangin Japan te in pom in rim napui khaw aphuang tu um tawn lo manin hlat leh ii. Khua ah let fang sawn in aphuangtu um manin Tedim ai Japan Vuanthok Inada in pom ai rek tum ii. Cia ta ah Hlur Hmung farpui Hlawn Sia fapaa Sung Voom ai rual Yoke Chao heh Inada in interpreter in hmang hnak ii. Yoke Chao in thu reel sah thiam manin aluang tlan hnak Rupee 3000 kuan ruai ii. Rupees 3000 kuan ben lo manin Rupee 1000 ciah Balai ai Japan Vuanthok Lian Luai kut ah pe ii.

Cia pah Japan raalkap um song kum 1944 September hla tian khuabawi per leh ii. Khuabawi per fangin “Japan Sang Khuai” ti in misia thang tu Laimi pa zoh suam hnak, hnih cip hnak tampui tuar awng ii. Za Biak sawn tu hmaituak lian sia ngial lo ii. Lumbang khua song ah Japan rinsan in phiar pui tu le awka suup hal lo tu te suak liang lo fangin cia lai khua song upa tampui hmuah siatsuah ben tlang tum ngaingai ii. Lo song ah relh tu hlen tian rin phuang duun in Japan hnen hlen duun awng ii. Ii-napuikhaw, Balai ai Japan upa hnen hleng fangin Tlauhmun Mi-uk awng Thang Tin Lian sawn in tampui kin o hal ii. Ciamanin kum 1944 song Sung Voom nu Hlawn Sia thi fangin Yoke Chao in thi raal ii le cia fangin Lumbang upa te he bang in tiam awng ii tihnak khai um ii:

Japan upa pawl in thu an lo sut le an lo sut mi thu lawng te sim aw. An lo sut lo mi thu pawl sim duh re ro hlah.

Kum 1944 song Japan raalkap te hleng in raal tawng hmun Imphal le akuul hnak thil zongza dah hmun Meiktila supply base heh hla duun ze in raalkap, raal thil le aih tuh rong te kuat ben thil zungzo lo hlai ah USA in Mirang phiar in Kawlram hleng hang manin Japan te tuar lo in August hla in pan Kawlram sawn let leh ii. India ai pan in Japan te hnawt leh tu heh Lt. General Sir William Slim in khawng hnak British Fourteenth Army ii. Ral sung bang hma song hmuah Imphal ah khawm leh hnak Mirang, US, Tuluk, India le Africa raalkap te ii.

Raal bo fangin Mirang Acuzah in Balai peng Tlauhmun, Khuangli le Laizo Mi-uk te uk hnak ram hmuah tu raal hlan ai Mi-uk te uk zom ruai hlen ii. Raal hlan Van Hmung uk hnak Zanniat le Khualsim khua le ram hmuah tu Kum 1944 October hla in pan Lumbang Mi-uk Hlur Hmung uk ah thawn ii. A thawn nia ling ciang thil leh lo napui khaw, November 14, 1944 nia pan in Hlur Hmung le Balai Zipeng thar U Thein Maung te heh Ruun bangla ai pan in Locom, ciata in Khupleng khua lam tian ram thar riil feh kawm ii. Cia tih in Zanniat khua le ram hmuah zolo in Lunghawh, Ngawn, Tapong le Ruun Ti tanziat Khualsim khua le ram hmuah kom liang khua 53 heh Kawlram Independence hnua February 19, 1948 nia tian Hlur Hmung uk ah um khat awng ii.

Mirang hleng leh fangin Yoke Chao khai pom ii. Cia fangin Hlur Hmung in thu reel sah thil manin hlat napui khaw, atlan thai lo in Hlur Hmung inn ah hla 6 song tavuan lang in khawl ruai ii. San dangdang ah Balai ram upa per veve fangin a panih in o duun thil kawm veve ii. Ral bo fangin Home Guard–Levy tampui hmuah zuun paak maithal laksawng suum teen ii. Khawlai ai Saw Ci khai Burma Gallantry Medal (B.G.M.) pe ii. Subedar Major TaiKwel tu raal pha ngai in konghoi de fang in Japan te siatsuahhnak rohsia pe ben manin Order of Burma (O.B.) le Member of the British Empire (M.B.E.) tazeik te suum ii. Hlur Hmung tu British Empire Medal (B.E.M.) Tazeik le 38 Smith & Wesson Revolver pakhat suum ii.

Ahnuata Laivum Raalpui songah Laimi hmuah khai kin hmu hnak le ling ben hnak thu thar pha tampui kin hleng ve ii. Kum siar lo vai hnak in innkua kham khop rong ngah ben de lo, lo vai san in kin luat in fim hnak thiam hnak te ling in cuung pan ve ii hang sing.

Part (5)

Pinlung Nyilarkhan in Pinlung Sachoke

1945 kum bo lam fangin Shan Sawbwa-Shan Upa te kom liang pawlkhat le Frontier Areas Administration uk tu Balai Peng Zipeng awng H.N.C. Stevenson te in Laimi, Kachin le Karen miphun te ko in tlaangpar miphun hmuah ram thu reelkhawm tlang tuh kin sawm ii. Cia teng fangin General Aung San le Kawl Upa te heh Mirang kut in Independence ngen tuh pai lak ii.

General Aung San in Kawlram ah um hmasa ber Pha-Sa-Pa La Anti-Fascist Peoples’ Freedom League Party (AFPFL) hming in ram thu rel pan fangin “Deedok” U Ba Cho khiah hlat in Mindat te thawn thu sawm hmasa ii. Cia lai ah Communist Party of Burma aka Burma Communist Party (CPB = BCP) khai AFPFL thawn zapui hmai ah thu khat paam ii. Mindat te in Deedok U Ba Cho sawm hnak thin khim manin Mindat khua hnia Htilin khua ah Chin-Bamar Friendship Monument Chin-Bamar Chitkyee-yee Kyaukdaing bir hnak Khaan heh ahim niu in um hlen ii.

Ciafangin Karen miphun te khai amah te ramthar sa in um tuh pai lak ve ii. Karen National Union in tunnia tian Acuzah tawng hlen ii. Ahnuata Laivum Raalpui suak hlan pah in Karen miphun te tampui heh Mirang San raalkap luut zo ii. Mirang te British Fourteenth Army thawn Kawlram luut leh fangin Karen mi General Smith Dun khai raalbawi upa pui per zo ii.

Kawlram Independence ngah sawng fangin Thirty Comrades Yebaw Thonkyeik ai Ne Win in rol leh ii. Pinlung Nyilarkhan ciah Shan ram Pinlung khua ah March 10, 1946 in April 2, 1946 song Kawl, Shan, Kachin le Laimi Upa te khawm in reel tlang ii. Karen te sawm napui khaw hleng lo ii. Ciata ah thureel tu Laimi Upa te he bang ii:

Hlur Hmung (Lumbang Mi-uk)
Kio Mang (Hakha Mi-uk)

Pum Za Mang (Saizang Mi-uk) Pinlung khua ah Mirang te in tlangpar miphun le ram hmuah Frontier Areas Administration ah um in Mirang in uk hnak ah um tuh hlen in kin sawm ii. Pha-Sa-Pa-La Party Upa U Saw in tu Kawl thawn um tuh sawn kin sawm ii. Kachin le Laimi Upa te tu amah te miphun mizapui hmai ah cia bang ramthu reel cia hnak um lai lo manin, Shan te bang in amah te thu in cia hmun ah reelcat thil lo hnak reel ve hnua United Hill People’s Union with the Burmese ti in lungrual hnak Sachoke tian ian thin khim tlang thil ii. Ciamanin Kachin le Laimi upa te hmuah in amah te ram song mizapui hmai ah reelcat hnua kum khat songah tawk duun in reel cat leh tuh hnak thu suah ben fangin kheek tlang ii

Pinlung Nyilarkhan ai reel hnak rampui thu ciah Haka, Balai le Tedim ah mizapui in reelkhawm liang ii. Balai peng hmuah April 20, 1946 nia Balai ah rel fangin eel tu um lo in Kawl thawn kom tuh in reel cat bangin Haka le Tedim ah khai lungkhim teen ii. Ciamanin Laimi hmuah khai tlangpar miphun dang te kawm in Kawl thawn umkhat tuh hlen in kin reel sah tu tuh in Lumbang Mi-uk Hlur Hmung, Haka Mi-uk Kio Mang le Tonzang Mi-uk Thawng Za Khup te riil in Pinlung ah hlat fangin Kawl, Kachin le Shan upa te kawm in February 12, 1947 nia ah ahnia ai Miphun Canca (Aiawh) te in Pinlung Sachoke lethmat-htu (hmingkhen) tlang ii:

Kawl Canca – General Aung San.
Laimi Canca – Hlur Hmung, Kio Mang le Thawng Za Khup.
Kachin Canca – Sinwa Naw, Zau Rip, Dinra Tang, Zaula, Z Lawn le Labang Grog
Shan Canca – Hkn Pan Sing, Sao Shew Thaik, Sao Hompa, Sao Num, Sao San Htun, Sao Htun E, Maung Pyu, Htun Pung, Tin E, Htun Myint, Kya Bu, Hkun Saw, Sao Yape Hpa le Hkun Htee.

Pinlung Sachoke suah nia heh National Day, Pyidaungsu Nih ti in sawnglawi ngai in hmang hlen ii sing. Pyidaungsu Nih ahampan tu ve Hlur Hmung khai 1979 kum ah a kum, kum 85 banghma fangin Balai peng Myanma Socialist Lansin Party in riil hnak songah tel manin Rangoon ah zu in kum 32 khim hnak Pyidaungsu Nih thu reel hmun ah thin hiam napui rimsu ngai in kai ve ii.

Hlur Hmung khai pupa san Zanniat daan in a sip buruh vum ah tuk tum in lupawng sanrang vel awng de ii. May 3, 1946 nia pah a tuk cem in sam sau khawi awl ii.

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